works cited page for final paper

Denver, Rorke. “Should Women Be SEALs?” Fox News. FOX News Network, 08 Feb. 2013. Web. 02 Apr. 2014. <http://www.foxnews.com/opinion/2013/02/08/should-women-be-seals/&gt;.

“Time.com.” US A OneTime SEAL on Those Female SEALWannabes Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2014. <http://nation.time.com/2013/06/24/a-one-time-seal-on-those-female-seal-wannabes/&gt;.

“Days of Rambo Over: US Allows Women to Join Navy SEALs, Army Rangers.” – Indian Express. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2014. <http://archive.indianexpress.com/news/days-of-rambo-over-us-allows-women-to-join-navy-seals-army-rangers/1130973/&gt;.

“Report: Pentagon to Open SEALs, Army Rangers to Women.” TheHill. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2014. <http://thehill.com/blogs/defcon-hill/policy-and-strategy/306017-report-pentagon-to-allow-women-to-join-navy-seals-army-rangers-&gt;.

“Military Plans Would Put Women in Most Combat Jobs.” Navy Times. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2014. <http://www.navytimes.com/article/20130617/NEWS05/306170021?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=twitter&gt;.

“Battle of The Sexes Will U S Military Allow Female Army Rangers and Navy Seals.” YouTube. YouTube, 26 Aug. 2013. Web. 03 Apr. 2014. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e7_68kE3wR8&gt;.

“Attitudes toward Women Now Entering Combat Jobs in the Military.” Examiner.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 May 2014. <http://www.examiner.com/article/attitudes-toward-women-now-entering-combat-jobs-the-military&gt;.

“Do Feminists Accept That Women Are Physically Inferior to Men?” Sunshine Mary. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 May 2014. <http://sunshinemaryandthedragon.wordpress.com/2014/01/02/do-feminists-accept-that-women-are-physically-inferior-to-men/&gt;.

“Debate Swirls over Female Navy SEALs | Military.com.” Debate Swirls over Female Navy SEALs | Military.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 May 2014. <http://www.military.com/daily-news/2013/02/02/debate-swirls-over-female-navy-seals.html&gt;.

“Reasons Why Women Should Not Join the Military.” HubPages. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 May 2014. <http://nailinthehead.hubpages.com/hub/Should-women-join-the-military&gt;.

“The U.S. Could Have Its First Female Navy SEALs By 2016.” Slate Magazine. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 May 2014. <http://www.slate.com/blogs/the_slatest/2013/06/18/female_navy_seals_penatagon_unveils_plan_for_women_to_train_for_elite_forces.html&gt;.

“Navy SEAL Frequently Asked Questions – SEALSWCC.COM | Official Website U.S. Navy SEALs.” Official Website U.S. Navy SEALs. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 May 2014. <http://www.sealswcc.com/navy-seals-frequently-asked-questions-faq.html#.U2mVGqXIoxc&gt;

“Attitudes toward Women Now Entering Combat Jobs in the Military.” Examiner.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 May 2014. <http://www.examiner.com/article/attitudes-toward-women-now-entering-combat-jobs-the-military&gt;

Presley Langley

John Havard

04/23/14

English Comp 2

Should Women be Navy SEALS?

Navy SEALs are the most elite close combat fighting force in the military. They specialize in special operations in any environment, however, they primarily train around and in maritime areas. SEALS train and fight in Unconventional Warfare, Foreign Internal Defense, Direct Action, Counterterrorism, and Special Reconaissance in either sea, land, or air. Navy SEALs are called on to perform missions of strategic importance for the United States. One of their most well-known missions, Operation Neptune Spear, took place on May 1, 2011 when SEAL team 6 carried out the operation to kill the Al-Qaeda leader, Osama bin Laden.

Since October 1, 1994 the Direct Ground Combat rule has been in effect. This military rule prevented women from being assigned to units below the brigade level whose primary mission is to engage in direct combat on the ground. However, recently as of January 2013, Secretary of Defense, at the time, Leon Panetta announced that the military will lift its ban on women serving in combat roles. This change will open up around 237,000 jobs for women, including those on the front lines according to USA Today. The repeal of the Direct Combat Rule does not immediately affect the assignment of women to Navy special warfare and approximately 3000 positions remain closed to the assignment of women. Studies are being conducted to research and analyze social impacts of integrations on small, elite units operating in austere and remote environments. According to Slate, these studies are scheduled to be completed by July 2014.

Mr. Panetta, Secretary of Defense at the time, decided to make this change right before he had to step down on the basis of equal opportunity. According to NY Times, “Mr. Panetta’s decision came after he received a Jan. 9 letter from Gen. Martin E. Dempsey, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, who stated in strong terms that the armed service chiefs all agreed that ‘the time has come to rescind the direct combat exclusion rule for women and to eliminate all unnecessary gender-based barriers to service.’” The only valid argument in repealing the ban on women fighting in the special forces is that it is not right to not give the same opportunities to both men and women. Women argue that they can perform physically and mentally as well as men. It may be true that women can run as fast as men or do the same training requirements as men but that does not mean that women are going to be able to perform at the same level of men under the pressure of close combat fighting. Former Navy SEAL Adm. George Worthington explains it well when he says, “It’s not marathon times. It’s not your speed in a 400-meter run or swim, It’s how you do it after 52 hours of being totally awake. Sand in your crotch and leeches and mosquitoes. How do you take that? It’s military conditioning, not Olympics stuff.”

Is opening up special operations to women really a good idea for the military? No. Women should not be allowed to become Navy SEALs for many reasons including their physical and emotional disadvantages, the estimated failure rate of women, the changes that would have to be made throughout the SEALs, and the fact that there are certain things that make SEALs the most elite of the elite, why mess that up?

Compared to men, women are at a physical and mental disadvantage, especially compared to the men who are Navy SEALS. First, let’s discuss how women are physically different than men. There are generally three reasons: muscle mass differences, bone structure, and lack of high testosterone levels. In a 1993 study exploring gender differences in muscle makeup, female participants exhibited only 52% of men’s upper-body strength and only 2/3 of men’s lower-body strength. Another study published in 1999 similarly found women had 40% less upper body skeletal muscle than men. Even controlling for athletic aptitude doesn’t tip the scales in favor of the females. Men have 50% greater total muscle mass, based on weight, than do women. A woman who is the same size as her male counterpart is generally only 80% as strong.

Next, women naturally have lighter and thinner bones compared to men. This means women are more likely to be injured because of stress fractures, broken bones, and countless other injuries while training or even worse while on a mission.

Women’s last physical disadvantage is their lack of testosterone compared to men. Women should not be allowed to perform the same combat duties that the current Navy SEALS are allowed to do because estrogen and testosterone create different reactions to combat on a physical as well as emotional level. Higher testosterone levels make men more suitable for combat because it is a natural performance-enhancing substance. Although women do have testosterone, it is on average 10-15 times less than that of a man. Men naturally produce 7 milligrams a day, whereas women produce 1/15 of that. Men’s elevated levels result in increases in muscle protein synthesis, resulting in increased muscle mass and reductions in muscle glycogen breakdown during exercise.

Females are also mentally disadvantaged compared to men. The lack of testosterone greatly affects women mentally with aggression and how they would react during combat. Men’s high levels of testosterone are vital to Navy SEALS’ missions. Imagine being on a mission and the less aggressive female soldier hesitates or does not perform the action requested of her. This can cause the man beside her or the soldier she is protecting to be injured, uncovered, or even shot and killed. There is not time to waste or time to hesitate when SEALS are on missions. The aggression that testosterone provides for men is vital in these situations. “The greater aggressiveness of the male is one of the best established, and most pervasive, of all psychological sex differences,” says Dr. Eleanor E. Maccoby and Dr. Carol Nagy Jacklin, Stanford University psychologists who are among the leading experts on sex differences.

So if women were able to overcome the physical and mental disadvantages compared to me and let’s say BUD/S, Navy SEAL training camp, is opened up to women; how likely is one to pass? BUD/S is a six month training course to train up-and-coming Navy SEALS. To even be considered for BUD/S, a male must meet requirements for a 500 yard swim, pushups, situps, pullups, and 1.5 mile timed run. The minimum standards are ignored, so to really succeed one must hold the “competitive requirements”. According to the official Naval Special Warfare website, SEALSWCC, the men who only meet the minimum requirements and not the competitive requirements are 3 times less likely to graduate training. Each year a new class of about 1000 men begin Navy SEAL training. Although success rates vary per class, usually about only 200-250 men graduate BUD/S. This means the failure rate of men is already 80%. What would it be for women? 90%? 95%? So why would the Navy go through all the trouble of integrating women into SEAL training if only a few women are going to succeed?

Former Navy SEAL officer Cade Courthey states, “I’m confident there are women who can pass the physical standards; there are women I’m sure who can pass the mental standards, but why would you add an element into the most elite special forces that could cause it to be less effective?” and “I’m not saying SEALS can’t adapt, but why mess with something that is working.” Former Navy SEAL Dick Couch also expresses concern about this in his article in TIME Magazine. His concern is that women who meet the standard need to do so in more than ones and twos because it is unreasonable to open training to 200 women to find only two who can meet the standard.

Another concern about opening Navy SEAL training up to women is that it would cost a lot of money to prepare adequate housing and training facilities for both men and women. This problem is discussed in a Navy Times article, “Military plans would out women in most combat jobs”.The article touched on the points about the cost of opening up these combat jobs to women, “particularly abroad a variety of Navy ships, including submarines, frigates, mine warfare and other smaller warships.” Many of these ships don’t have adequate facilities for women, especially to meet privacy needs. These ships would require design and construction changes, something that if the combat positions stayed closed to women wouldn’t be an issue. Also at the training of SEALs, housing and residence halls would have to be redesigned and reconstructed so that women and men could have separate barracks, so that privacy needs were met. Opening up these positions to women causes a lot of change that would need to take place, and this change ultimately detracts the attention away from the big picture. The main focus of Navy SEALs are to carry out missions that protect the people of our great nation and with all this change going on, things might start to get distracting.

Lastly, integrating women into Navy SEALs would break up the cohesion of an all male unit. Comradery and teamwork are both important aspects to SEALs, in both training and especially on missions. This elite group of professionals are recognized around the world as the best of the best in accomplishing their purpose through working as a team. They never work alone and they understand that the more work they are prepared to put into team building, the greater the teamwork benefits will be. Navy SEALs have always trained with only men. Training is intense, scary, and seems like hell. Training wouldn’t be the same with men and women training beside each other, and if they trained men and women separately training wouldn’t be as effective. Although officers would be required to treat everyone the same, you can imagine that subconsciously officers would treat women differently. Women and men just wouldn’t be able to train together the same as men only. A former Navy SEAL describes a moment he remembers from Hell Week from BUD/S. One night it was so cold and all the trainees were spooning to get at least a little bit of warmth in the frigid air. The soldier was just hoping the guy behind him would have to pee so he could receive just a few seconds of warmth. This story shows how extreme training can be and how women and men wouldn’t be able to train together. It would just be inappropriate for men and women to be in that situation together. Men and women simply do not have the same type of relationship as men working only with men.

Studies have been conducted and surveys have been taken to test the approval rate from civilians and military students who agree with allowing women into the special forces. Surveys were taken at the United States Air Force Academy and the United States Naval Academy. Michael D. Matthews and Morten G. Ender from the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership of West Point conducted surveys that found that military students and particularly those from the academies, were more likely to perceive that the presence of women would be detrimental to combat effectiveness. Civilians and military students both agreed that they are hesitant about sending women into close combat such as Navy SEALS. The strenuous physical and mental demands would be extremely challenging for women compared to men.

Another aspect to women in the military that people are concerned with is the privacy issue between male and female soldiers in training and in combat missions. It is the thought of being seen in unhygienic situations such as having to urinate or defecate in front of fellow soldiers when there are no other options that make military soldiers concerned about integrating women. Picture the familiar reality of Marines all packed in the bed of a truck, so tightly that some men have to sit on another soldier’s lap. They ride for 48 hours fully clothed and armed in the intense heat of the day. You can imagine how filthy, sweaty, and smelly these soldiers are at this point. The soldiers‘ only choice to relieve themselves is a little bags for urinating and defecating. Imagine if there were women in this combat group? Those conditions wouldn’t be acceptable for the privacy of men and women. Many problems would be brought up about that and that would be yet another thing the Navy would have to change about their operations. Also changing clothes and taking showers become a problem that has to be dealt with if women become Navy SEALs. Many changes would have to be made in the daily life of those Navy SEALs and it just isn’t worth it in the long run.

Since the ban has been lifted, services are struggling with integrating women into the combat jobs they were once not allowed to do. The Army Rangers have a plan in motion and the Navy is still planning to research more about integrating women and allowing women to train as Navy SEALs. Women are physically and mentally disadvantaged compared to men, women have a higher failure rate at BUD/S, too many changes would have to be made, and women would break up the cohesion of the all-male unit. Women should not be allowed to become Navy SEALs because the risks outweigh the political correctness of the potential outcome.

final

Presley Langley

ENGL 1020

My writing skills have definitely changed for the better in the past semester. I’ve had a pretty long history of writing classes from high school and in college, but I can see improvement along the years. This class has challenged me in what I’ve written about and how I’ve written things. It has pushed my comfort zone and pushed me to explore things I’ve never written about before, which has overall made me a more professional and more confident student.

I would probably rate my work from this semester pretty high up there. I’ve put a lot of effort into each paper and into the work leading up to each paper. I am pleased with them. I think I could have done a better job about proofreading each one however. I am just hesitant about other people criticizing my work so I never really wanted anybody to read it and proofread it for me. I think the most difficult thing about the papers this semester were they were so open for what to write about. I had a lot of options and it sometimes overwhelmed me, especially for the final paper. To face this challenge I would just sit down and brainstorm and come up with points about each topic and then take the topic that I had the most points on and I would use that one. It seemed to work pretty well.

Another thing that really helped me improve my writing skills were the comments I received back from you and the students who did my peer review for each paper. All the feedback I got was really helpful when I was writing my papers. The comments that you provided helped me mold the structure of my paper as well as the details. I really appreciated the attention to details you gave my paper when you helped with grammar and quotes and the smaller things.

This class also helped me push myself out of my comfort zone that I am used to being in when I write. Most of the classes I have had to write papers for were either book reports or personal narratives. This class challenged me to think about a topic, form my opinion about it, and then argue it within a paper. It pushed me and helped me become a better writer. Usually I have a hard time with forming my own opinion about something and then arguing it, but by our last paper I feel a lot more confident with my writing. Also the length of all the papers was more challenging for me. I have been used to 2-3 page papers and at the most a 5 page paper, but I have been pushed past that within the past semester.

I have definitely met some of my goals in the past few months. I wanted to get more experience in writing about new topics instead of just book reports or papers for history class. Also I wanted to write about something that had arguments against it. I wanted to be able to get to a point in my writing that I could be confident enough to argue my own opinion about a topic. This class has required me to do that multiple times, so by the time we started on our last paper, I was definitely confident enough to do that. And I believe confidence is a huge aspect to how well your paper is going to turn out. Another goal I met was to be challenged by a lengthy paper and see how difficult it was to discuss a certain topic for so long. It wasn’t as bad as it seemed, so I’m glad I was challenged by it and now it doesn’t intimidate me as much.

My writing skills have definitely improved since the beginning of my writing career, and even since just the beginning of the semester. I can tell a difference in my knowledge of essay, paragraph, and sentence structure. My confidence is my writing has greatly grown and overall my writing skills have improved. I am pleased with the papers I’ve had to write this past semester and I can see how the work I’ve done this semester will change my writing skills for the rest of my college career.

Women shouldn’t be allowed to become Navy SEALs

Presley Langley

John Havard

04/23/14

English Comp 2

Should women be Navy SEALS?

Navy SEALs are the most elite close combat fighting force in the military. They specialize in special operations in any environment, but are trained around and in maritime areas. SEALS train and fight in Unconventional Warfare, Foreign Internal Defense, Direct Action, Counterterrorism, and Special Reconaissance in either sea, land, or air. Navy SEALs are called on to perform missions of strategic importance for the United States. One of the most well-known missions, Operation Neptune Spear, took place on May 1, 2011 when SEAL team 6 carried out the operation to kill the Al-Qaeda leader, Osama Bin Laden.

Since October 1, 1994 the Direct Ground Combat rule has been in effect. This military rule prevented women from being assigned to units below the brigade level whose primary mission is to engage in direct combat on the ground. However, recently as of January 2013, Secretary of Defense, at the time, Leon Panetta announced that the military will lift its ban on women serving in combat roles. This change will open up around 230,000 jobs for women, including those on the front lines. The repeal of the Direct Combat Rule does not immediately affect the assignment of women to Navy Special Warfare and approximately 3000 positions remain closed to the assignment of women. Studies are being conducted to research and analyze social impacts of integrations on small, elite units operating in austere and remote environments. These studies are scheduled to be complete by July 1, 2014.

Is this really a good idea though? Women should not be allowed to become Navy SEALs for many reasons including their physical and emotional disadvantages, the estimated failure rate of women, the changes that would have to be made throughout the SEALs, and the fact that the SEALs are already the most elite of the elite- why mess that up?

Compared to men, women are at a physical and mental disadvantage, especially compared to the men who are Navy SEALS. First, lets discuss how women are physically different than men. There are generally three reasons: muscles mass differences, bone structure, and lack of high testosterone levels. In a 1993 study exploring gender differences in muscle makeup, female participants exhibited only 52% of men’s upper body strength and only 2/3 of men’s lower body strength. Another study published in 1999 similarly found women had 40% less upper body skeletal muscle than men. Even controlling for athletic aptitude doesn’t tip the scales in favor of the females. Men have 50% greater total muscle mass, based on weight, than do women. A woman who is the same size as her male counterpart is generally only 80% as strong.

Females also naturally have lighter, thinner bones compared to men. Next, women naturally have lighter and thinner bones compared to men. This means women are more likely to be injured because of stress fractures, broken bones, and countless other injuries while training or even worse while on a mission.

Women’s last physical disadvantage is their lack of testosterone compared to men. Women should not be allowed to perform the same combat duties that the current Navy SEALS are allowed to do because estrogen and testosterone create different symptoms and reactions to combat on a physical, as well as emotional level. Higher testosterone levels make men more suitable for combat because it is a natural performance enhancing substance. Although women do have testosterone it is on average 10-15 times less than that of a man. Men naturally produce 7 milligrams a day, whereas women produce 1/15 of that. Men’s elevated levels result in increases in muscle protein synthesis resulting in increased muscle mass and reductions in muscle glycogen breakdown during exercise. Females are also mentally disadvantaged compared to men. Testosterone greatly affects women mentally with aggression and how they would react during combat. Men’s high levels of testosterone are vital to Navy SEALS’ missions. Imagine being on a mission and the less aggressive female soldier hesitates or doesn’t carry out what she needs to. This can cause the man beside her or the soldier she is protecting to be injured, uncovered, or even shot and killed. There isn’t time to waste or time to hesitate when SEALS are on missions. The aggression that testosterone provides for men is vital in these situations. “The greater aggressiveness of the male is one of the best established, and most pervasive, of all psychological sex differences.” says Dr. Eleanor E. Maccoby and Dr. Carol Nagy Jacklin, Stanford University psychologists who are among the leading experts on sex differences.

So lets say BUD/S, Navy SEAL training camp, is opened up to women, how likely is one to pass? BUD/S is a six month training course to train up-and-coming Navy SEALS. To even be considered for BUD/S, a male must meet requirements for a 500 yard swim, pushups, situps, pullups, and 1.5 mile timed run. The minimum standards are ignored, so to really succeed one must hold the “competitive requirements”. Each year a new class of about 1000 men begin Navy SEAL training. Although success rates vary per class, usually about only 200-250 men graduate BUD/S. The men who only meet the minimum requirements and not the competitive requirements are 3 times less likely to graduate training. This means the failure rate of men is already 80%. What would it be for women? 90%? 95%? So why would the Navy go through all the trouble of integrating women into SEAL training if only a few women are going to succeed? In reality, very few women are able to perform at the same capacity of men and this means that percentage-wise more women would drop out of training. This brings up the problem of wasting government money because every woman that drops out of training is another tax dollar wasted. Former Navy SEAL officer Cade Courthey states, “I’m confident there are women who can pass the physical standards; there are women I’m sure who can pass the mental standards, but why would you add an element into the most elite special forces that could cause it to be less effective?” and “I’m not saying SEALS can’t adapt, but why mess with something that is working.” Former Navy SEAL Dick Couch also expresses concern about this in his article in TIME Magazine. His concern is that women who meet the standard need to do so in more than ones and twos because it is unreasonable to open training to 200 women to find only two who can meet the standard.

Another concern about opening Navy SEAL training up to women is that it would cost a lot of money to prepare adequate housing and training facilities for both men and women. An article that I found that was really useful was one found in Navy Times titled, “Military plans would out women in most combat jobs”. I found this article interesting because it touched down on the points about the cost of opening up these combat jobs to women, “particularly abroad a variety of Navy ships, including submarines, frigates, mine warfare and other smaller warships.” Many of these ships don’t have adequate facilities for women, especially to meet privacy needs. These ships would require design and construction changes, something that if the combat positions stayed closed to women wouldn’t be an issue. Also at the training of SEALs housing and residence halls would have to be redesigned and reconstructed so that women and men could have separate barracks, so that privacy needs were met. Opening up these positions to women causes a lot of change that would need to take place and this change ultimately detracts the attention away from the big picture. The main focus of Navy SEALs are to carry out missions that protect the people of our great nation and with all this change going on, things might start to get distracting.

Lastly, integrating women into Navy SEALs would break up the cohesion of an all male unit. Comradery and teamwork are both important aspects to SEALs, in both training and especially on missions. This elite group of professionals are recognized around the world as the best of the best in accomplishing their purpose through working as a team. They never work alone and they understand that the more work they are prepared to put into team building, the greater the teamwork benefits will be. Navy SEALs have always trained with only men. Training is intense, scary, and more like hell than anything else. I feel like training wouldn’t be the same with men and women training beside each other and if they broke it up it wouldn’t be as effective. Although officers would be required to treat everyone the same, you can imagine that subconsciously officers would treat women differently. penis. Women and men just wouldn’t be able to train together the same as men only. A former Navy SEAL describes a moment he remembers from Hell Week from BUD/S. One night is was so cold and all the guys were pretty much just spooning to get at least a little bit of warmth. The soldier was just hoping the guy behind him would have to pee so he could receive just a few seconds of warmth. This story shows how extreme training can be and how women and men wouldn’t be able to train together. It would just be wrong for men and women to be in that situation together. Men and women simply don’t have the same type of relationship as men working only with men.

Since the ban has been lifted, services are struggling with integrating women into the combat jobs they were once not allowed to do. The Army Rangers have a plan in motion and the Navy is still planning to research more about integrating women and allowing women to train as Navy SEALs. Women are physically and mentally disadvantaged compared to men, women have a higher failure rate at BUD/S, too many changes would have to be made, and women would break up the cohesion of the all male unit. Women should not be allowed to become Navy SEALs because the risks outweigh the political correctness of the potential outcome.

Final submission of Formal Assignment #3

Presley Langley

John Havard

04/07/14

English Comp 2

Should women be Navy SEALS?

Navy SEALs are the most elite close combat fighting force in the military. They specialize in special operations in any environment, but are trained around and in maritime areas. Navy SEALs are called on to perform missions of strategic importance for the United States. One of the most well-known missions took place on May 1, 2011 when SEAL team 6 carried out the operation to kill the Al-Qaeda leader, Osama bin Laden.

Since October 1, 1994 the Direct Ground Combat rule has been in effect. This military rule prevented women from being assigned to units below the brigade level whose primary mission is to engage in direct combat on the ground. However, recently as of January 2013, Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta announced that the military will lift its ban on women serving in combat roles. This change will open up around 230,000 jobs for women, including those on the front lines. Is this really a good thing though? Women should not be allowed to become Navy SEALs for many reasons including their physical and emotional disadvantages, the estimated failure rate of women, the changes that would have to be made throughout the SEALs, and the fact that the SEALs are already the most elite of the elite- why mess that up?

Dick Couch, a former Navy SEAL, wrote an article for TIME magazine titled, “A One-Time SEAL on Those Female SEAL-Wannabes”. His article discusses the ban being lifted and how the Pentagon is trying to determine a way to integrate women on these levels without “watering down its readiness to fight”. The Navy must have a plan by October 2015 on how they plan on integrating women into combat. Couch also discusses some details about SEALs and the training course called BUD/S. SEALs have always had a certain standard to attain to and their current “‘train like you fight/ fight like you train’ approach has greatly improved the SEAL training pipeline.” Couch believes that with this standard in place, if you meet it you should be qualified to be a Navy SEAL, but he does express some concerns. He is concerned about the physical differences between men and women and he expresses his concern about how standards can’t be slackened. “Your life and mine depends on my ability to get you out of a kill zone and safely to cover. There can be no compromise,” Couch explains. His second concern is that women who meet the standard need to do so in more than ones and twos because is unreasonable to open training to 200 women to find only two who can meet the standard. Couch’s last concern regards the cultural issue with women fighting in close combat. He says. “Do we as a nation, and an American culture, want our mothers, sisters, and daughters in the business of sustained, direct, mortal combat?”

Another article that I found that was really useful was one found in Navy Times titled, “Military plans would out women in most combat jobs”. I found this article interesting because it touched down on the points about the cost of opening up these combat jobs to women, “particularly abroad a variety of Navy ships, including submarines, frigates, mine warefare and other smaller warships.” Many of these ships don’t have adequate facilities for women, especially to meet privacy needs. These ships would require design and construction changes, something that if the combat positions stayed closed to women wouldn’t be an issue. Also at the training of SEALs housing and residence halls would have to be redesigned and reconstructed so that women and men could have separate barracks, so that privacy needs were met. Opening up these positions to women causes a lot of change that would need to take place and this change ultimately detracts the attention away from the big picture. The main focus of Navy SEALs are to carry out missions that protect the people of our great nation and with all this change going on, things might start to get distracting.

Although it is not published on a well known site, a blogger wrote an article titled, “Do feminists accept that women are physically inferior to men?” This article occasionally veered off topic, however it gives a good story of how standards can’t be lowered based on gender. For 40 years, the Marine Corps has required male recruits to perform three pullups to prove their upperbody strength for combat, where they would be required to carry heavy equipment and potentially lift themselves out of mud walls. Originally female recruits were also required to do a minimum of three pullups, but 55% of the female recruits could not complete all three pullups, compared to just the 1% of male recruits who could not. The Marine Corps, in response to the failure rate of women completing the pullup requirement, has delayed the requirement for female marines. This example shows that if women are to be allowed into BUD/S SEAL training then the standards and requirements can not be lowered based on gender.

Since the ban has been lifted, services are struggling with integrating women into the combat jobs they were once not allowed to do. The Army Rangers have a plan in motion and the Navy is still planning to research more about integrating women and allowing women to train as Navy SEALs. Women should not be allowed to become Navy SEALs because the risks outweigh the political correctness of the potential outcome.

“Time.com.” US A OneTime SEAL on Those Female SEALWannabes Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2014. <http://nation.time.com/2013/06/24/a-one-time-seal-on-those-female-seal-wannabes/&gt;.

“Military Plans Would Put Women in Most Combat Jobs.” Navy Times. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2014. <http://www.navytimes.com/article/20130617/NEWS05/306170021?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=twitter&gt;.

http://sunshinemaryandthedragon.wordpress.com/2014/01/02/do-feminists-accept-that-women-are-physically-inferior-to-men/

Formal Assignment #3

Presley Langley

John Havard

04/07/14

English Comp 2

Should women be Navy SEALS?

Navy SEALs are the most elite close combat fighting force in the military. They specialize in special operations in any environment, but are trained around and in maritime areas. Navy SEALs are called on to perform missions of strategic importance for the United States. One of the most well known missions took place on May 1, 2011 when SEAL team 6 carried out the operation to kill the Al Qaeda leader, Osama bin Laden. Since October 1, 1994 the Direct Ground Combat rule has been in effect. This military rule prevented women from being assigned to units below the brigade level whose primary mission is to engage in direct combat on the ground. However, recently as of January 2013, Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta announced that the military will lift its ban on women serving in combat roles. This change will open up around 230,000 jobs for women, including those on the front lines. Is this really a good thing though? Women should not be allowed to become Navy SEALs for many reasons including their physical and emotional disadvantages, the estimated failure rate of women, the changes that would have to be made throughout the SEALs, and the fact that the SEALs are already the most elite of the elite- why mess that up?

Dick Couch, a former Navy SEAL, wrote an article for TIME magazine titled, “A One-Time SEAL on Those Female SEAL-Wannabes”. His article discusses the ban being lifted and how the Pentagon is trying to determine a way to integrate women on these levels without “watering down its readiness to fight”. The Navy must have a plan by October 2015 on how they plan on integrating women into combat. Couch also discusses some details about SEALs and the training course called BUD/S. SEALs have always had a ceratin standard to attain to and their current “‘train like you fight/ fight like you train’ approach has greatly improved the SEAL training pipeline.” Couch believes that with this standard in place, if you meet it you should be qualified to be a Navy SEAL, but he does express some concerns. Couch is concerned about the physical differences between men and women and he expresses his concern about how standards can’t be slackened. “Your life and mine depend on my ability to get you out of a kill zone and safely to cover. There can be no compromise.” His second concern is that women who meet the standard need to do so in more than ones and twos because is unreasonable to open training to 200 women to find only two who can meet the standard. His last concern regards the cultural issue with women fighting in close combat. Couch says. “Do we as a nation, and an American culture, want our mothers, sisters, and daughters in the business of sustained, direct, mortal combat?”

Another article that I found that was really useful was one found in Navy Times titled, “Military plans would out women in most combat jobs”. I found this article interesting because it touched down on the points about the cost of opening up these combat jobs to women, “particularly abroad a variety of Navy ships, including submarines, frigates, mine warefare and other smaller warships.” Many of these ships don’t have adequate facilities for women, especially to meet privacy needs. These ships would require design and construction changes, something that if the combat positions stayed closed to women wouldn’t be an issue. Also at the training of SEALs housing and residence halls would have to be redesigned and reconstructed so that women and men could have separate barracks, so that privacy needs were met. Opening up these positions to women causes a lot of change that would need to take place and this change ultimately detracts the attention away from the big picture. The main focus of Navy SEALs are to carry out missions that protect the people of our great nation and with all this change going on, things might start to get distracting.

Although it is not published on a well known site, a blogger wrote an article titled, “Do feminists accept that women are physically inferior to men?” This article occasionally veered off topic, however it gives a good story of how standards can’t be lowered based on gender. For 40 years, the Marine Corps has required male recruits to perform three pullups to prove their upperbody strength for combat, where they would be required to carry heavy equipment and potentially lift themselves out of mud walls. Originally female recruits were also required to do a minimum of three pullups, but 55% of the female recruits could not complete all three pullups, compared to just the 1% of male recruits who could not. The Marine Corps, in response to the failure rate of women completing the pullup requirement, has delayed the requirement for female marines. This example shows that if women are to be allowed into BUD/S SEAL training then the standards and requirements can not be lowered based on gender.

Since the ban has been lifted, services are struggling with integrating women into the combat jobs they were once not allowed to do. The Army Rangers have a plan in motion and the Navy is still planning to research more about integrating women and allowing women to train as Navy SEALs. Women should not be allowed to become Navy SEALs because the risks outweigh the political correctness of the potential outcome.

annotated bibliography

Presley Langley Annotated Bibliography Source #1- The Hill: “Report: Pentagon to open SEALS, Army Rangers to women.” Carlo Munoz reports that the Pentagon is planning on allowing women into the ranks of the Navy SEALS and the Army Rangers for the first time in U.S history. The time lines for the ranks to open are still being reviewed by the Department of Defense. The article discusses the opening dates for women in the Riverine Forces, Army, and the Navy. Besides the dates being discusses, Munoz also discusses how women have impacted the military thus far and how women are already holding important military roles.

This article does a good job of discussing the dates that are soon to take place in order to allow women into combat. It gives a specific date for each branch of the government that is opening combat up for women. It also goes into detail about how women have really impacted the military and how they already hold important roles and do a good job of doing that. This article leans more towards the fact that women should be allowed and shows that they already do their important jobs well and they could do these new jobs very well too. The article does a good job of supporting itself with facts and examples.

I think I will surely be able to use a lot of the content in this article. I needed the dates and those will be very helpful when writing my paper. The facts and examples about how women complete and succeed in their roles in the military now will also come in useful for my argument.

Source #2-TIME: “A One-Time SEAL on Those Female SEAL-Wannabes” Dick Couch wrote this article for TIME magazine that is mostly leaning on the side that SEALS should be left the way they are and he gives some pretty important points to support his argument. He discusses how the ban from women being in combat has been lifted, but the Pentagon is trying to decide how to integrate women into the military on these levels without “watering down its readiness to fight”. Dick Couch also discusses details about SEALS and the trianing course called BUD/S.

I think this is a really well written and well supported article. Although it is biased towards only allowing men in BUD/S. He has his opinions and supports them well. He gives three reasons to why he doesn’t believe women should be allowed to join Navy SEALS: 1) The standards in place are combat proven standards, there cant be any slackening of them. 2) If the Pentagon opens SEALS up to women, it can’t just be one or two, that would be unreasonable to open it up for such few women. 3) There is a cultural issue with having our mothers, sisters, and daughters fighting in combat like a Navy SEAL.

I really liked this article to use for my argument in my paper. It had good facts in it about the ban law in the first place and how the Pentagon is dealing with lifting it. I also liked hearing about why this former Navy SEAL believed it would be wrong for women to be allowed to be Navy SEALS. I think I will be able to use this article a lot in my paper.